Author Guidelines

LANGUAGE

Your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services for pre- and post-submission of research papers can visit. http://www.igrps.org

USE OF LANGUAGE

Use of language authors should note that they are writing for an international audience. National colloquialisms and idiomatic use of language should be avoided to the extent possible. Word choices and sentence constructions that might imply bias against persons on the basis of gender, racial or ethnic group membership, disability, sexual orientation, or age should be avoided.

THE LENGTH OF PAPER

For individual papers, a length of between 4,000 - 8,000 words is acceptable. This excludes tables, figures and references. The word count limit is not applicable for "Research Protocols

The length of the paper should not exceed 25 pages. Paper containing more than 25 pages words will be returned to the author(s) to a bridge. Articles should be typed in double-space (including footnotes and references) on one side of the paper only (preferably A4) with wide margins. Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the expense of clarity.

TITLE PAGE

Title page tile should be Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Title page is a separated page before the text. It should include the following information:

ARTICLE STRUCTURE

INTRODUCTION

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

ABSTRACT

A concise and factual abstract is required (of no more than 120 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 x 1328 pixels (h x w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 x 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files.

Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

HIGHLIGHTS

Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). http://www.igrps.org

KEYWORDS

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 8 keywords, using British or American spelling, but not a mixture of these, and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations:

Only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

ABBREVIATIONS

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

EXPERIMENTAL/MATERIALS AND METHODS

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

THEORY

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work.

SUBDIVISION - NUMBERED SECTIONS

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

RESULTS

Results should be clear and concise.

DISCUSSIONS

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

CONCLUSIONS

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusion section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

APPENDICES

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Figure captions, tables, figures, schemes. Present these, in this order, at the end of the article. They are described in more detail below. High-resolution graphics files must always be provided separate from the main text file

AUTHORS NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS

Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

CORRESPONDING AUTHORS

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

PRESENT / PERMANENT ADDRESS

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Authors are requested to provide the contact details of 2-3 possible reviewers for their paper when they submit.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

FOOTNOTES

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

REFERENCES

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

CITATIONS IN THE TEXT

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid citation in the abstract. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as in press implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions. If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

FIGURES AND TABLES EMBEDDED IN TEXT

Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.